Transversal Competencies (TCs) (interpersonal, intrapersonal, critical thinking and global citizenship skills) are essential skills, knowledge and behaviours for work and life success. Limited literature exists on methods to develop TC for adult education. This scoping review explores how TCs are being embedded into health professional learning and strategies to deliver training for the self-directed learner.

Practitioner Notes

  1. Learners can be taught transversal competencies to self-manage, solve problems, relate and collaborate with others.
  2. Teaching methods can be aligned with the learner's objectives through selecting appropriate principles and paradigms of education.
  3. Heutagogy was found to be effective for changing attitudes and practice in self-directed, independent learners (online).
  4. Adult learners who wish to improve their practice and drive change need transformative education rather than compliance teaching.
  5. Educators are encouraged to consider progressing beyond social constructivism and humanism paradigms towards transformative learning to enable learners to lead change in society.