Guided notes were introduced decades ago, but there is still debate over their efficacy in improving student outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine peer-reviewed research on guided notes for adult learners in general populations since 2009, understanding the effects of guided notes on student learning, the knowledge and content areas supported by guided notes, and the impact of modality. Results of the 22 included studies indicate that students perceive guided notes in a positive light, and guided notes improve results in certain knowledge domains especially with complex content. However, modality does not influence the efficacy of guided notes. Implications for practice in teaching and learning and recommendations for research were provided.