Energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analyses of a hybrid renewable energy system with hydrogen fuel cells
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
In this study, the energy, exergy, exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental (4E) analyses of a cogeneration system that combines photovoltaic thermal panels (PV/T), evacuated tube solar collectors, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and energy storage systems are performed. The cogeneration model is built to meet the load demand of independent houses in remote areas and avoids excessive consumption of traditional energy and environmental pollution. Here, the exergoenvironmental analysis adopts the Eco-indicator-99 method and the all life cycle assessment method is used to calculate the environmental impact of each component. Two comparative studies are conducted to the 4E analyses. The first one compares the comprehensive performance of the battery storage and hydrogen production for energy storage. The results indicate that the cogeneration system using both batteries and hydrogen production for energy storage has the best overall performance. According the exergoeconomic and exergoenvironmental analyses, its environmental impact is 23.6% lower than the cogeneration system using batteries alone and the PV/T can be fully utilized. In addition, the total cost rate is 6.2% lower than the cogeneration system using hydrogen production alone. The second case investigates the effect of adding the evacuated tube solar collectors between the PV/T and ORC on the cogeneration system. The analysis results demonstrate that the evacuated tube solar collectors can increase the heat source temperature of the ORC to increase the power generation of the ORC by 37.14%; however, the total cost rate of the cogeneration system increases by 3.7% and the environmental impact rate increases by 19.8%.
Open Access Status
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