Polymer nanocomposite dielectrics for capacitive energy storage
Owing to their excellent discharged energy density over a broad temperature range, polymer nanocomposites offer immense potential as dielectric materials in advanced electrical and electronic systems, such as intelligent electric vehicles, smart grids and renewable energy generation. In recent years, various nanoscale approaches have been developed to induce appreciable enhancement in discharged energy density. In this Review, we discuss the state-of-the-art polymer nanocomposites with improved energy density from three key aspects: dipole activity, breakdown resistance and heat tolerance. We also describe the physical properties of polymer nanocomposite interfaces, showing how the electrical, mechanical and thermal characteristics impact energy storage performances and how they are interrelated. Further, we discuss multi-level nanotechnologies including monomer design, crosslinking, polymer blending, nanofiller incorporation and multilayer fabrication. We conclude by presenting the current challenges and future opportunities in this field.
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National Natural Science Foundation of China