Nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) have been widely used in different areas of research such as materials science, energy, and biotechnology. On-demand synthesis of NPs and MPs with desired chemical and physical properties is essential for different applications. However, most of the conventional methods for producing NPs/MPs require bulky and expensive equipment, which occupies large space and generally need complex operation with dedicated expertise and labour. These limitations hinder inexperienced researchers to harness the advantages of NPs and MPs in their fields of research. When problems individual researchers accumulate, the overall interdisciplinary innovations for unleashing a wider range of directions are undermined. In recent years, modular and integrated systems are developed for resolving the ongoing dilemma. In this review, we focus on the development of modular and integrated systems that assist the production of NPs and MPs. We categorise these systems into two major groups: systems for the synthesis of (1) NPs and (2) MPs; systems for producing NPs are further divided into two sections based on top-down and bottom-up approaches. The mechanisms of each synthesis method are explained, and the properties of produced NPs/MPs are compared. Finally, we discuss existing challenges and outline the potentials for the development of modular and integrated systems.
Lu, H., Tang, S., Yun, G., Li, H., Zhang, Y., Qiao, R. & Li, W. (2020). Modular and Integrated Systems for Nanoparticle and Microparticle Synthesis-A Review. Biosensors, 10 (11).