The focus of this article is on the analysis of reflection and peer learning in the pedagogical environment. The research draws on findings from an Australian study, which aimed to develop and critically evaluate a model of vocal pedagogy influenced by socio-cultural theories. The model sought to position Vygotsky’s theories in the environment of university-level vocal instruction. To capture the developmental nature of this pedagogical project, a design-based development research methodology was employed. Central to this approach was flexibility of the design, multiple dependent variables and capturing social interaction. The students were not the subject of experimentation, but were co-participants in the design and analysis. The results of the study suggest that there is value in peer learning for both classical and non-classical singers at an undergraduate level. In particular, the data from the student journals in the present study also suggests that if the environment is arranged in such a way that peer learning is encouraged and purposely mediated, singing students find this extremely helpful as a learning strategy.