Sensitive and selective dopamine determination in human serum with inkjet printed Nafion/MWCNT chips
An inkjet printed Nafion/MWCNT chip was developed for rapid dopamine determination in undiluted human serum. A well-dispersed Nafion/MWCNT composite ink was investigated with homogeneous double layers which increased the efficiency of dopamine detection, where direct electron exchange was achieved, producing a measurable current change at the underlying sensor electrode. This platform successfully demonstrated direct detection of DA concentrations (0.1 mu M to 10 mu M, R = 0.999) in real human serum samples using DPV and amperometry methods. This direct measurement of DA in serum samples without pretreatment and dilution is reported for the first time in a Nafion/MWCNT system.