Publication Details

Clarke, T. M., Gordon, K. C., Officer, D. L. & Grant, D. K. (2006). The effect of oxidation on the structure of styryl-substituted sexithiophenes: A resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory study. Journal of Chemical Physics, 124 (16), 164501-1-164501-11.


The structures and vibrational properties of a series of styryl-substituted sexithiophenes and their charged species have been examined using resonance Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with density functional theory calculations. The calculated geometries of the radical cations and dications indicate that the quinoidal charged defects are more strongly localized in the center of the thiophene backbone than is observed in other sexithiophenes. This defect confinement, induced by the positions of the styryl substituents, is particularly evident in the dication species. However, the defect confinement weakens when alkoxy groups are added onto the phenyl rings by causing the extension of the charged defect into the styryl groups. The Raman spectra of the neutral styryl sexithiophenes are dominated by intense thiophene symmetrical stretching modes in both the measured and predicted spectra.Oxidation generates radical cations and dications, both of which can be observed in the solution state resonance Raman spectra. Unlike other sexithiophenes, which generally show a downshift of the intense thiophene stretching mode from the radical cation to the dication, a small upshift is observed for the styryl-substituted sexithiophenes. The theoretical spectra predict an insignificant change during this transition and the eigenvector for this mode reveals that it is localized over the same area occupied by the confined defect. In contrast, the solid state resonance Raman spectra of electrochemically oxidizedfilms reveal evidence of solely radical cations and there is an appreciable downshift of the intense thiophene stretching mode compared with the corresponding mode in the solutionspectra. This implies that the increase in the effective conjugation length from the solution to the solid state is greater for the radical cations than for the neutral species. It therefore appears that the radical cations form π stacks in the solidfilm and the resulting intermolecular interactions effectively allow a further extension of the electron delocalization.



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