Lithium-based batteries possessing energy densities much higher than those of the conventional batteries belong to the most promising class of future energy devices. However, there are some fundamental issues related to their electrodes which are big roadblocks in their applications to electric vehicles (EVs). Nanochemistry has advantageous roles to overcome these problems by defi ning new nanostructures of electrode materials. This review article will highlight the challenges associated with these chemistries both to bring high performance and longevity upon considering the working principles of the various types of lithium-based (Li-ion, Li-air and Li-S) batteries. Further, the review discusses the advantages and challenges of nanomaterials in nanostructured electrodes of lithium-based batteries, concerns with lithium metal anode and the recent advancement in electrode nanostructures.