Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic, and Biomedical Engineering


In New Zealand (NZ), titanomagnetite (TTM) ironsand has been commercially processed in a coal-fired rotary kiln process. However, this approach produces high emissions of CO2. Fluidised bed (FB) process allows the use of pure hydrogen gas to reduce ironsand, and as a result, does not produce CO2. However, for conventional hematite ores, reduction in a FB system is usually limited by the onset of particle sticking at temperatures ≳ 800°C. This thesis investigates the reduction of NZ ironsand by hydrogen in the FB system with a key focus on ore sticking behaviour.

A laboratory-scale experimental FB reactor has been designed and built for the hydrogen reduction study at high temperatures. Quantitative X-ray diffraction (q-XRD) has been used to determine the metallisation degree of partially reduced samples. Phase evolution during the reaction has also been analysed using q-XRD alongside scanning electron microscopy (SEM).



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.