Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Institute for Superconducting & Electronic Materials


Metal air batteries, including lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) and zinc air batteries (ZAB), have drawn research attention around the world due to their superior high energy densities. A Li-O2 cell discharges to Li2O2 product at 3.1 V and could deliver a specific energy as high as 3623 Wh/kg, which makes it a possible candidate system to power a full-size electric car. Up to now, the challenges of metal air batteries have been the cycling instability of electrolytes and their low round–trip efficiency, which could be increased by optimizing the cathode catalysts and structures. In the past ten years, many advances have been achieved, but the challenges remain.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.