Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Education


Since its introduction to second language teaching, the Communicative Language Teaching approach (CLT) has become a worldwide approach and focal point in second and foreign language education policy in many countries (Butler 2011; Nguyen and Nguyen 2007; Littlewood 2007). In Vietnam, it has been officially presented in the curriculum for English language teaching in secondary schools released by the Ministry of Education and Training (MOET) since 2006 (Tran, 2015), and implemented in a curriculum for English language education in primary schools.

This thesis investigates how English teachers in a Vietnamese context implement the English teaching programme for primary schools designed by the MOET in terms of applying CLT. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (SCT), with its notions of scaffolding and mediation, was used as the framework to explore teachers’ perspectives and teaching practices in relation to the following research question: How is CLT implemented in the MOET program of English Language Teaching for primary schools?; and the following subsidiary questions: How is CLT understood by Vietnamese teachers in this context?; How is CLT practiced by Vietnamese teachers in this programme?; How can CLT be adapted in this context to improve MOET outcomes?



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.