Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Intelligent Polymer Research Institute


In bionic applications, where electronics meets biology, cell-material interactions and especially those interactions with conducting polymers, have played a crucial role in development of electrode-tissue interfaces. This thesis presents a fundamental study on quantifying interactions, including the measurement of forces, involved in single live cellconducting polymer adhesion in the molecular domain as a function of electrical stimulation. To enable this work, we have implemented the technique, Single Cell Force Spectroscopy (SCFS), and combined it with in-situ Electrochemical-Atomic Force Microscopy (EC-AFM). We also develop an alternative technique by integrating conducting polymer electrodes onto AFM probes, termed Conductive Colloidal AFM-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, to directly measure cell adhesion combined with electrochemical processes. Overall, we are particularly interested in developing and applying Bio-AFM based techniques with electrochemistry and conducting polymer electrodes to address the challenges of quantitatively characterizing nanoscale and molecular-level interactions directly at cellelectrode interface in real-time and as a function of electrical stimulation.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.