Boyang Ruan



Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Australian Institute of Innovative Materials


Sustainable energy sources, such as solar panels and wind turbines, have attracted ever-growing attention due to concerns about the issue of climate change. The utilization of these energy sources relies on the availability of large-scale energy storage systems. Currently, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely used as power sources for portable electronic devices due to their high voltage, long cycle life, and ability to operate at ambient temperature, but the low abundance of lithium resources will make it hard to meet the demands of large-scale applications. Sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are believed to be a promising alternative to LIBs due to the abundant natural resources of sodium. As is well-known, the key to success in the development of advanced SIBs to meet the renewable energy market demands is the electrode materials. It is thus necessary to develop and employ cost-effective electrode materials with the capacity for high energy density, high cycling stability, and excellent rate capability. Thus, more and more investigations on sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been emerging in recent years.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.