Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical Engineering


The foreseen reduction of available fossil fuels, the continued increase in global energy demand, and the irrefutable evidence of climate change, along with the implementation of a global commitment to achieve a net-zero emissions target, have greatly sharpened commercial interest in using renewable energy resources (RER). However, the high penetration of RER-based stochastic power generation systems has resulted in a significant requirement for increased flexibility on the demand side that can allow buildings to adapt to increasingly dynamic energy supply conditions to support power grid operation and optimization. Failure to adapt may carry serious electrical blackouts and can compromise the safety of the supply side.

The building sector accounts for a substantial amount of global energy usage and offers great opportunities for energy flexibility. Building energy flexibility is an important and emerging concept in the modern energy landscape, which can support the sustainable transition of the power sector. Building heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are one of the leading energy consumers in buildings, which can be used as a key flexible source. The HVAC systems with integrated thermal energy storage (TES) can further enhance building energy flexibility.

This thesis contributes to the evolving field of demand flexibility and introduces methodologies to evaluate and improve energy flexibility and performance of building HVAC systems.

FoR codes (2008)

0913 MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, 1204 ENGINEERING DESIGN, 120403 Engineering Design Methods, 120404 Engineering Systems Design



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.