Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Education


Cognitive Load Theory (CLT) research has shown that studying worked examples, which provide a step-by-step solution to a problem, can reduce cognitive load and support learning in well-structured learning domains relative to solving conventional problems. Two types of worked examples that have been widely used in CLT research are process oriented worked examples and product oriented worked examples. Process oriented worked examples provide step-by-step solutions to solve a problem, plus statements explaining the rationale for each step. Product oriented worked examples provide the step-by-step solutions to solve a problem without supporting explanations of each of the steps. In this research two studies were conducted to investigate which instructional condition, process oriented worked examples, product oriented worked examples or conventional problem solving, would best support student learning in an ill-structured learning domain focusing on the quality teaching component of substantive communication.

FoR codes (2008)

1701 PSYCHOLOGY, 1702 COGNITIVE SCIENCE, 130313 Teacher Education and Professional Development of Educators



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.