Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Electrical, Computer and Telecommunications Engineering


In recent years, electricity generation employing renewable energy sources such as wind and solar dramatically increased and will continue to grow substantially in the future. Such developments cause a shift from conventional synchronous generators with well-known inherent behaviour to inverter-based generation with the behaviour strongly depending on the implemented control algorithms. Associated with this trend towards inverter based renewable energy generation is the reduction of system inertia leading to concerns on higher frequency gradients which can result in lower frequency nadirs and higher frequency zeniths in the event of network contingencies.

This thesis illustrates how the introduction of battery storage systems (BSS) into the power system can help to keep grids stable. With BSS, Fast Frequency Response (FFR) can be introduced as a new service that takes advantage of their fast reaction times. FFR is the incorporation of rapid active power increase or decrease by generation or load in a frame of two seconds or less, to correct a supply-demand imbalance and assist in managing power system frequency. In the context of this thesis, artificial inertia is treated as a subset of FFR. A central aim of the work presented in this thesis is to examine how different BSS activation mechanisms compare with each other and how effective these mechanisms are under different conditions. For that, the difference between activation methods and technologies that can provide FFR are highlighted leading to the development of four different controllers. The basic principles for these controllers are derived from existing concepts for FFR. The controllers considered include a proportional controller, artificial inertia controller, event detection controller, and an improved proportional controller. In the research, improvements to these BSS activation methods were undertaken and further developed. The performance of the controllers was tested utilising simulations for different grid conditions and scenarios in combination with conventional measures such as Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR).

FoR codes (2008)



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.