Degree Name

Master of Philosophy


School of Health and Society


Background: Diabetes-related poor oral health is a major public health concern worldwide due to adverse impacts on overall well-being and quality of life. In Pakistan, inadequate oral health care services are recognized and this situation substantiates the importance of studying oral health self-care practices of patients with Type2-Diabetes Mellitus and their relationship with quality of life.

Objectives: The objectives of the research were: (1) to investigate the prevalence of oral health risk factors among type 2 diabetic patients seeking care in Islamabad, Pakistan; (2) to assess type 2 diabetics' oral health status, knowledge, self-care practices associated with oral health, and quality of life in terms of oral health and; (3) to identify the factors associated with adequate oral health knowledge and dental visits, as well as the barriers and solutions to dental care access among people living with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: A total of 287 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from two large public hospitals in Islamabad. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, Qualtrics was used to administer an online survey comprised of an oral health survey step-1 to evaluate the participants' oral health status, an oral health knowledge questionnaire to evaluate the participants' oral health knowledge, and an oral health Impact Profile-14 to evaluate the participants' oral health-related quality of life. SPSS 28.0 was utilized for data management and analysis. Descriptive and inferential statistics were generated for data management using SPSS version 28.0.

Results:Poor oral health is reported by 10% of the respondents, poor gum health experienced by around 12% and about 9% of patients suffering from poor oral mucosa health. Two-thirds (63.8%) suffered toothache, one-quarter (26.1%) had chewing problems, and one-third (31%) had dry mouth. Over 9% had mouth sores. When compared to younger participants, older participants reported more discomfort in their teeth, gums, and mouth (74.1%), chewing difficulties (34.5%), and dry mouth (25.9%, 18.5%, and 29.1%, respectively). Among oral self-care practices, not regularly brushing the teeth was found to be associated with poor or average teeth, gums, and oral health (84.9 % versus 47.4%, p

Conclusions: To enhance oral self-care practices among patients with Type diabetes, healthcare providers should promote awareness about the relationship between diabetes and oral health. The oral health field must understand behavioral and socioeconomic issues and produce high-quality, empirically-supported educational and therapeutic interventions to improve the nation's oral health.

FoR codes (2008)




Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.