Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical Engineering


With the increasing demand for freedom of part design in the industry, additive manufacturing (AM) has become a vital fabrication process for manufacturing metallic workpieces with high geometrical complexity. Among all metal additive manufacturing technologies, wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM), which uses gas metal arc welding (GMAW), is gaining popularity for rapid prototyping of sizeable metallic workpieces due to its high deposition rate, low processing conditions limit, and environmental friendliness. In recent years, WAAM has been developed synergistically with industrial robotic systems or CNC machining centers, enabling multi-axis free-form deposition in 3D space. On this basis, the current research of WAAM has gradually focused on fabricating strut-based wire structures to enhance its capability of producing low-fidelity workpieces with high spatial complexity. As a typical wire structure, the large-size free-form lattice structure, featuring lightweight, superior energy absorption, and a high strength-weight ratio, has received extensive attention in developing its WAAM fabrication process.

However, there is currently no sophisticated WAAM system commercially available in the industry to implement an automated fabrication process of wire or lattice structures. The challenges faced in depositing wire structures include the lack of methods to effectively identify individual struts in wire structures, 3D slicing algorithms for the whole wire structures, and path planning algorithms to establish reasonable deposition paths for these generated discrete sliced layers. Moreover, the welded area of the struts within the wire structure is relatively small, so the strut forming is more sensitive and more easily affected by the interlayer temperature. Therefore, the control and prediction of strut formation during the fabricating process is still another industry challenge. Simultaneously, there is also an urgent need to improve the processing efficiency of these structures while ensuring the reliability of their forming result.

FoR codes (2008)




Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.