Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience


Electrochemical stimulation (ES) promotes wound healing and tissue regeneration in biomedical applications and clinical studies and is central to the emerging field of electroceuticals. Traditional ES such as deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease, utilises metal electrodes that are "hard wired" to a power supply to deliver the stimulation. Bipolar electrochemistry (BPE) introduces an innovative approach to cell stimulation that is wireless. Developing conducting polymers (CPs)-based stimulation platforms wireless powdered by BPE bipolar will provide an exciting new dimension to medical bionics. In this project, Chapter 2 deals with development of a bipolar electrochemical activity testing system and bipolar electrochemical stimulation (BPES) system. Then, bipolar electroactive and biocompatible CPs grown on FTO substrate are successfully synthesised, modified, and characterised in Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 using the above systems prior to using for wireless cell stimulation. Furthermore, free standing and soft CP templates are developed (Chapter 5). More importantly, all these bipolar electroactive CPs have been applied to wireless cell stimulation using BPE (all research Chapters). Significant increase in both cell number and neurite growth has been demonstated, suggesting that the BPES system is highly efficient for stimulation of animal PC 12 cell and human SH-SY5Y cell. More specific information is presented in each chapter as below.

In Chapter 3, a CP-based bipolar electrochemical stimulation (BPES) system for cell stimulation was present. Polypyrrole (PPy) films with different dopants have demonstrated reversible and recoverable bipolar electrochemical activity under a low driving DC voltage (

FoR codes (2008)

030604 Electrochemistry, 030599 Organic Chemistry not elsewhere classified, 060113 Synthetic Biology, 090301 Biomaterials



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.