Degree Name

Master of Philosophy


Intelligent Polymer Research Institute


Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic metabolic autoimmune disease where the patient's immune system destroys insulin-producing β-cells in the islet of Langerhans. The current treatment option is through frequent administration of exogenous insulin, where the patients must closely monitor the dosage. Patients often need islet transplantation when the β-cell destruction worsens, and the body cannot utilize exogenously administrated insulin. Islet transplantation is a form of cell therapy that could restore endogenous insulin production. However, this method has several drawbacks, including low survival of functional islets and allograft tissue immunogenicity. A recently emerging tissue engineering approach can offer a possible solution to address the limitations of islet transplantation. A 3D structure fabricated by simultaneously printing various cell types could improve the survival and function of islet grafts by providing revascularization and immune protection.

This project focused on developing inks suitable for simultaneously printing multiple cell types in the form of core and shell coaxial channels. The shell ink was composed of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA), gelatin, and alginate optimized to improve printability at room temperature. The core ink was composed of GelMA and gelatin. The 3D constructs were fabricated with the customized Dual Ink Co-axial Bioprinter (DICAB) manufactured in Translational Research Initiative for Cell Engineering and Printing (TRICEP) for this project. The 3D constructs printed with the core and shell inks showed structural stability over four weeks.

FoR codes (2020)

400301 Biofabrication, 400302 Biomaterials



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.