Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Clinical Psychology


School of Psychology


A growing body of research suggests that depressed men are more likely to express alternative symptoms that are currently not included in standard diagnostic depression criteria. Findings on this topic, however, have been inconclusive and it remains unclear which symptoms accurately identify depression in men. Without a sufficient and thorough understanding of gender-specific symptomatology in depression, depressed men might not receive appropriate treatment and support. Consequently, the overall aim of this thesis is to clarify whether men and women express different symptoms associated with depression and potential implications for assessment and treatment. This aim is addressed by critically reviewing existing evidence in the research literature of gender differences in depression and conducting empirical research in different community populations and contexts. Results are presented in a sequence of four PhD studies that were developed to systematically investigate and test whether gender-specific symptomatology exists. To the author’s knowledge this was the first time that a systematic research program on the genderspecific symptomatology was developed and conducted.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.