Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Physics


Pencil beam scanning (PBS) is a specialized form of proton therapy that utilizes inverse planning in conjunction with intensity modulation of proton beam spots for treatment delivery. In recent years, PBS has seen widespread adoption among the proton therapy community and most newly constructed proton therapy facilities utilize this modality. Due to the widespread adoption of PBS, there has been considerable effort by commercial and institutional entities to improve the efficacy of this form of proton therapy. Although there have been numerous advancements in the clinical use of PBS, many improvements are ongoing or have yet to be implemented clinically.

The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to explore clinically relevant improvements and technological advancements for PBS treatments. The work presented in this thesis first highlights recent technological advancements that are aimed at improving the quality of PBS delivery for the treatment of cancer. Next, multiple novel clinical translational research projects carried out at the Seattle Cancer Care Alliance Proton Therapy Center (SCCAPTC) will be presented. The aim of this work is to explore various approaches to improve and advance the efficacy of PBS for the treatment of cancer. The numerous strategies for improving PBS delivery presented in this work can be divided into two general categories: (1) delivery strategies and (2) computational methods.

FoR codes (2008)




Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.