Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials


Rechargeable sodium-air batteries (SABs), particularly sodium-oxygen (Na-O2) and sodium-carbon dioxide (Na-CO2) batteries have attracted intensive research attention in recent years owing to their advantages of high theoretical energy density, modest cost, abundance of sodium resources, and promising potential for achieving real applications in large-scale energy storage systems. Nevertheless, current research on Na-O2 and Na-CO2 batteries is facing enormous challenges, such as low energy efficiency and limited cycle life, which are restricting their progress at the initial stage. Therefore, understanding their working principles, and the chemical and electrochemical reactions of the electrodes is indispensable to achieve their practical application and even the goal of true sodium-air batteries.

In this thesis, an overview of the research developments and future perspectives on Na-O2 and Na-CO2 batteries is presented, which include the major aspects, such as working mechanisms, air cathode materials design strategies, sodium anode protection, and electrolyte stability. My doctoral work main focuses on enhancing the performance of non-aqueous Na-O2 and Na-CO2 batteries by preparing effective air cathode electrodes, including nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber material, activated hierarchically porous hollow carbon nanoshell and rambutan-like Co3O4 hollow sphere. In addition, the remaining issues and future research directions of the promoted electrochemical performance for sodium-air batteries are also thoroughly discussed and presented.

FoR codes (2008)

0912 MATERIALS ENGINEERING, 100708 Nanomaterials

This thesis is unavailable until Sunday, October 08, 2023



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.