Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (Hons.)


This study is concerned with the biology and ecology of a group of marine sessile invertebrates commonly referred to as fouling organisms. The term 'fouling' was originally used to describe the unwanted or harmful growth of plants and animals attached to man-made structures such as ships' hulls and harbour walls. 'Fouling' has acquired a very broad meaning today. Many authors have used it in relation to the general process of settlement of all marine sessile invertebrates. However, the term 'fouling organism' defines those particular marine organisms which are capable of settling and growing on any man-made surface (Perkins, 1974; Crippen and Reish, 1969). A fouling organism community includes algae, bacteria, protozoa, free moving and sessile invertebrate animal species. Animal species make up the greatest proportion of total biomass in most fouling communities. The present study investigates only sessile fouling animals.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.