Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering


Undoubtedly, there is a huge demand for renewable energy storage devices for various everyday applications, from portable electronics to large-scale applications such as electric vehicles and energy storage for electrical grids, made especially urgent due to the depletion of fossil fuels. Currently, rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) technology is most prominently used in mobile or portable electronics, which has raised a huge demand for expensive lithium, the reserves of which would not be sufficient for a future huge share of electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage, thereby putting severe pressure on lithium production and its cost. Alongside LIB technology, both academic and industrial researchers need to focus on exploring various other types of energy storage devices (which can compete with LIB technology) and their materials, considering important factors such as cost, safety, and energy storage and delivery capabilities. These alternative energy storage systems could make a considerable contribution to balancing future energy demands. What could be the potential alternatives/partners to LIB technology to balance energy demands? How can we design and engineer alternative materials for such energy storage devices (including LIB technology)? This doctoral thesis work summarizes research to address the aforementioned questions.