Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of Management, Operations and Marketing


Characterized as integrated and open systems, tourism economies are highly susceptible to external factors due to the number and diversity of stakeholders involved. The alarming rise of global crises, coupled with the capacity of each crisis to severely impact a range of tourism organizations and a variety of other stakeholders (Ritchie, 2009), has led tourism scholars and professionals to take a more rigorous approach toward addressing this issue through tourism crisis management (TCM). TCM is essentially crisis management for the tourism industry.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.