Degree Name

Doctor of Philosphy (PhD)


Centre for Maritime Policy - Faculty of Law


Coral reefs are one of the important components of coastal and marine ecosystems in Indonesia. Uncontrolled and irresponsible management has resulted in them being severely stressed. At least 70% of Indonesia�s coral reefs are under rigorous threat and this is now considered one of the most serious environmental problems in the country. This thesis analyses the challenges of managing coral reef ecosystems in Indonesia. The problems identified include: lack of community participation; weakness in national and local legislative framework; lack of national policy and planning; lack of law enforcement and compliance systems; weakness in institutional arrangements for coastal and coral reef resources management; and most importantly, the general lack of political and bureaucratic commitment and lack of interagency cooperation at the national and regional government levels. The thesis concludes with several recommendations for improving the management of coastal and coral reef resources and their ecosystems. The recommendations include: the application of community-based management or co-management concepts in coastal and coral reef resources management; the establishment of a national ocean policy; amendment of several natural resource laws and the enactment of a new integrated natural resources law; the establishment of horizontal and vertical interagency cooperative mechanisms for policy and management planning and implementation; the establishment of national and regional law enforcement units; and the creation of a new Coordinating Ministry for Ocean Activities.

02Whole.pdf (1809 kB)



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.