Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


School of History and Politics - Faculty of Arts


This thesis adopts an interdisciplinary approach. It examines the development of marine and coastal policy in Indonesia and explores how well Indonesia is governing its marine and coastal space and resources and with what effects and consequences. This thesis uses a policy analysis framework, with legislative and institutional activity as the basic unit of analysis. Three factors are identified as having been the major influences on the evolution of marine and coastal policy in Indonesia. These are international law, marine science and “state of the art” marine and coastal management. The role of these factors in the management of the coastal zone, living and non-living marine resources, marine science and technology, the marine environment and relevant international relations are analysed and discussed in the Indonesian case. This thesis concludes that Indonesia’s major challenges in terms of sustainable marine and coastal development are (a) to establish an appropriate management regime, and (b) to formulate and implement a combination of measures in order to attain the objectives of sustainable development. The basic problem is the fact that currently, Indonesia is not a “marine oriented” nation. Therefore, marine and coastal affairs are not at the top of the public policy agenda. Principles of international instruments have influenced the establishment of marine and coastal policy and management in Indonesia. However, in the implementation of sound management practices, Indonesia faces many challenges. The distinctive characteristics of Indonesia as an archipelagic nation underpin the basic philosophy of marine and coastal policy and management. With the increasing priority of marine and coastal policy in national development, science and environmental aspects have been able to play a greater role in policy development. ii A number of lessons can be taken from the Australian experience that may have some relevance to how Indonesia meets the challenges of implementing its new marine and coastal policy. For example, Indonesia needs to follow the lead of Australia, establishing national principles, goals and objectives for the sustainable of Indonesia’s marine and coastal resources and the conservation, protection and restoration of the marine and coastal environment. The solution for major marine and coastal management problems between federal and states, such as Offshore Constitutional Settlement (OCS) and Intergovernmental Agreement on the Environment (IGAE), offer an attractive alternative for the implementation of regional autonomy in Indonesia. Also, there is a need for multi-stakeholder involvement throughout the policy development process. In readiness for the 21st Century, the Guidelines of State Policy (GBHN) 1999 stated a shift of paradigm from ‘terrestrial oriented’ towards ‘marine oriented’ development. Indonesia started to give more priority to marine and coastal development and now faces the challenges posed by the transition from issue analysis and planning to the implementation of policies. One way or the other, it is reasonable to conclude that new forces and new needs are likely to bring change and improvement to marine and coastal governance in Indonesia over the next decade or so. iii



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.