Degree Name

Master of Engineering - Research


School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronics Engineering


Electrochemical actuators based on conducting polymers are being developed for many applications because of their significant advantages such as low voltage operation, relatively easy synthesis process. Polypyrrole actuators are important and popular because of their similarity to natural muscles are often called “artificial muscles”. It is always important and challenging to find an efficient electropolymerization method to modify and develop polypyrrole actuators. A new electropolymerization method, which involves preparing the PPy free-standing film as a sequential series of electrodeposited layers with ethanol washing in between each deposited layer. This method, known as layer by layer electropolymerization, has been shown to be more efficient when compared to the other electropolymerization methods. Here we attempt to compare the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of PPy free-standing films polymerized at different current densities via the layer by layer (LBL) and continuous electropolymerization methods.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.