Degree Name

Master of Arts (Hons.)


Faculty of Arts


This thesis examines the response of social democracy to the problems of two lesser developed countries in Europe: Spain and Turkiye. First, the development of social democratic ideas and practice is examined. I argue that social democracy is best imderstood as a pragmatic, broad based movement for social justice, not as a rigid program or set of dogmas. Thus social democracy has not ceased to have contemporary relevance, but has entered a new era where it uses new methods to achieve its goal. In this new era social democracy differs from the 1960s due to the changing nature of the parties, the electorate and their relationship with trade imions. All of these changes have forced a revision of commitment to 1960s social democratic practices and policies.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.