Degree Name

Master of Arts (Hons.)


Department of English


This dissertation examines literary representations of gender in Philippine society. It argues that a central and continuing concern in Philippine fiction is the gender roles and social attitudes surrounding the female. A principal focus in this context is the querida. This figure is linked to an endemic machismo that continues to be associated with the double standards of society. Through the five novels and seventeen short stories by Bienvenido N. Santos, this dissertation examines the relationships between history, religion, material class and gender relationships. It considers the changes that occur over Santos' literary career, especially as he changes to modern and American settings. It concludes that while there is much realist reflection of the social status quo in the texts, there is also some critical commentary effected through narrative distance and implied irony which is more apparent in Santos' later works.



Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not necessarily represent the views of the University of Wollongong.