Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Department of Mechanical Engineering


Analytical and experimental investigations exploring a new, potentially useful idea for a type of particle injector are presented. The injector is designed to work on the principles of gas dynamics, and can be used for transporting dry particulate matter to high pressure destinations and processes. The proposed device is expected to overcome many of the limitations (such as limited operating/back pressure, moving parts, clogging, deterioration due to particle agglomeration) of conventionally used particle feeders. The basic idea involves creation of a zone of relatively low pressure in a supersonic gas stream in a duct, and introducing the particulate matter into this zone. The particulate matter is then conveyed by the gas stream to the high pressure destination through a normal shock.

The aim, motivation and basic concepts of the project are introduced in Chapter 1. The relevant available literature is also surveyed.

Chapter 2 contains an overview of the project. The technique used for the analytical investigation of the flow in the proposed injector is introduced.

Chapter 3 contains an analytical investigation of flow in the Injection Tube.

Chapter 4 presents an analysis of the primary gas flow, which leads to nozzle design.

Flow in the Interaction Region is investigated in Chapter 5.

Chapter 6 introduces a 'Modified-Fanno' model for the pseudo-shock, developed during the course of the analytical investigation of flow in the Compression Region.

In Chapter 7, the 'Modified-Fanno' model is extended to suspension flows. Chapters 8 and 9 contain two-dimensional and three-dimensional PHOENICS simulations of the flow in the injector duct, respectively.

Chapter 10 contains an account of design considerations and fabrication details of the experimental facility and a description of the flow visualisation technique.

Chapter 11 presents results of the experimental investigation, along with comparisons with theoretical predictions.

Chapter 12 presents conclusions and recommendations for further and related work.

Among the new ideas explored during this study are the application of Generalised Steady One-Dimensional Flow analysis for designing the nozzle duct, modelling of a pseudo-normal shock in a duct as 'Modified-Fanno' flow, and a possible extension of the model to multiple shocks in suspensions.

study reveals that the proposed injection device is feasible and easily controllable.