Estimating Uncertainty in Assessments of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields

Publication Name

Electromagnetic Ergonomics: from Electrification to a Wireless Society


This chapter provides advice on how to evaluate the uncertainty of radiofrequency electromagnetic (RF EMF) exposure assessments for both measured and calculated assessments. It draws heavily on the recommendations of the JCGM Guides to Uncertainty in Measurement but also provides additional insight on some special characteristics of RF EMF uncertainties, particularly: (1) the lognormal nature of the input quantities, (2) the multiplicative form of the uncertainty equation and (3) the typically wide extents of the uncertainty distributions. Advice is provided on the basic characteristics of the RF EMF uncertainty model and its parameters, as well as the classical and numerical (Monte Carlo) techniques that may be applied for calculating the combined uncertainty of the exposure assessment. This is illustrated with worked examples, including Python computer code for the Monte Carlo calculations. It is hoped that this chapter will encourage RF EMF assessors to regard the evaluation of uncertainty as an achievable and useful skill, and guide them towards its confident mastery.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

First Page


Last Page




Link to publisher version (DOI)