Environmental Policies and the Promotion of Pro-Environmental Consumer Behavior: A Systematic Literature Review

Publication Name

Journal of Macromarketing


Governments and policymakers play a crucial role in promoting consumer behaviors to mitigate climate change. The research on environmental policies over the past decades has not significantly increased knowledge regarding how effectively these policies help consumers embrace pro-environmental behaviors. Using the motivation–opportunity–ability (MOA) framework, this systematic review reveals that regulatory policies that constrain opportunities are more likely to promote pro-environmental behavior. Furthermore, economic policy instruments that facilitate opportunities are also more likely to promote pro-environmental behaviors. Despite being more commonly employed, informational policy instruments are less effective than regulatory and economic instruments. Although informational policy instruments that target opportunities instead of motivations and abilities can result in better outcomes, behavior change remains a challenge. This systematic review is significant because it clarifies mixed results in the literature regarding the effectiveness of environmental policies in promoting pro-environmental behaviors. Accordingly, a framework of MOA-based policy mix is proposed to help policymakers develop effective instruments that stimulate pro-environmental behaviors.

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