Joint Action against AMR with a One Health Perspective
Steering against Superbugs: The Global Governance of Antimicrobial Resistance
One Health aims to attain optimal public health outcomes through interdisciplinary collaboration across the human, animal, and environment health sectors and can comprise several others (e.g., food, plants, climate). The approach recognizes that all areas are interdependent, that animal species provide a shared reservoir for pathogen exchange and spread, and that infectious disease emergence is driven by dynamic human-animal interactions at the human-animal-environment interface. One Health operates at local, regional, national, and global levels, and is based on communication, collaboration, and coordination across sectors. Because antimicrobials are used to prevent and treat infections in humans, animals and plants, AMR is a complex One Health problem. Effective and sustainable solutions depend on a harmonized One Health approach, which must be adapted to national contexts. Based on survey data and policy analyses, and focusing on Europe, the chapter describes that multi-stakeholder engagements which tackle AMR need to ensure the translation of scientific findings to policy-makers efficiently to captivate political leadership. The involvement of social and political science experts in engagement will facilitate a better understanding of contextual factors and actors. The EU has a crucial role in strengthening AMR surveillance by focusing attention on including environmental actors and supporting existing international initiatives for harmonized data gathering and analysis. The chapter concludes with an overview of policy implications for AMR in a One Health context, emphasizing the importance of the approach to connect sectors and to develop efficient responses to promote the health of animals, humans, and the environment.
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