Basking in the sun: how mosses photosynthesise and survive in Antarctica
The Antarctic environment is extremely cold, windy and dry. Ozone depletion has resulted in increasing ultraviolet-B radiation, and increasing greenhouse gases and decreasing stratospheric ozone have altered Antarctica’s climate. How do mosses thrive photosynthetically in this harsh environment? Antarctic mosses take advantage of microclimates where the combination of protection from wind, sufficient melt water, nutrients from seabirds and optimal sunlight provides both photosynthetic energy and sufficient warmth for efficient metabolism. The amount of sunlight presents a challenge: more light creates warmer canopies which are optimal for photosynthetic enzymes but can contain excess light energy that could damage the photochemical apparatus. Antarctic mosses thus exhibit strong photoprotective potential in the form of xanthophyll cycle pigments. Conversion to zeaxanthin is high when conditions are most extreme, especially when water content is low. Antarctic mosses also produce UV screening compounds which are maintained in cell walls in some species and appear to protect from DNA damage under elevated UV-B radiation. These plants thus survive in one of the harshest places on Earth by taking advantage of the best real estate to optimise their metabolism. But survival is precarious and it remains to be seen if these strategies will still work as the Antarctic climate changes.
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Australian Research Council