Pro-Inflammatory Diet Is Correlated with High Veillonella rogosae, Gut Inflammation and Clinical Relapse of Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic conditions arising from an intricate interplay of genetics and environmental factors, and are associated with gut dysbiosis, inflammation, and gut permeability. In this study, we investigated whether the inflammatory potential of the diet is associated with the gut microbiota profile, inflammation, and permeability in forty patients with IBD in clinical remission. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) score was used to assess the inflammatory potential of the diet. The fecal microbiota profile was analyzed using 16SrRNA (V3–V4) gene sequencing, while fecal zonulin and calprotectin levels were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. We found a positive correlation between the DII score and elevated calprotectin levels (Rho = 0.498; p = 0.001), but not with zonulin levels. Although α- and β-diversity did not significantly differ across DII quartiles, the most pro-inflammatory diet group exhibited a higher fecal abundance of Veillonella rogosae (p = 0.026). In addition, the abundance of some specific bacteria sequences showed an exponential behavior across DII quartiles and a correlation with calprotectin or zonulin levels (p ≤ 0.050). This included a positive correlation between sq702. Veillonella rogosae and fecal calprotectin levels (Rho = 0.419, p = 0.007). DII, calprotectin, and zonulin levels were identified as significant predictors of 6-month disease relapse (p ≤ 0.050). Our findings suggest a potential relationship of a pro-inflammatory diet intake with Veillonella rogosae and calprotectin levels in IBD patients in clinical remission, which may contribute to disease relapse.
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