Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation in Lingo-1: Effects on Cognitive Function and White Matter Microstructure in a Case-Control Study for Schizophrenia
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein (Lingo-1) plays a vital role in a large number of neuronal processes underlying learning and memory, which are known to be disrupted in schizophrenia. However, Lingo-1 has never been examined in the context of schizophrenia. The genetic association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs3144) and methylation (CpG sites) in the Lingo-1 3′-UTR region was examined, with the testing of cognitive dysfunction and white matter (WM) integrity in a schizophrenia case-control cohort (n = 268/group). A large subset of subjects (97 control and 161 schizophrenia subjects) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans to assess WM integrity. Frequency of the rs3144 minor allele was overrepresented in the schizophrenia population (p = 0.03), with an odds ratio of 1.39 (95% CI 1.016–1.901). CpG sites surrounding rs3144 were hypermethylated in the control population (p = 0.032) compared to the schizophrenia group. rs3144 genotype was predictive of membership to a subclass of schizophrenia subjects with generalized cognitive deficits (p < 0.05), in addition to having associations with WM integrity (p = 0.018). This is the first study reporting a potential implication of genetic and epigenetic risk factors in Lingo-1 in schizophrenia. Both of these genetic and epigenetic alterations may also have associations with cognitive dysfunction and WM integrity in the context of the schizophrenia pathophysiology.
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