The superconducting diode effect

Publication Name

Nature Reviews Physics


A superconducting diode enables supercurrent to flow in only one direction, providing new functionalities for superconducting circuits. In recent years, there has been experimental progress towards realizing such behaviour in both Josephson junctions and in junction-free superconductors. In this Review, we discuss experimental work and theoretical developments of the superconducting diode effect (SDE). We present the observation of the SDE including material realization, underlying symmetries, nature of spin–orbit interaction, band topology, device geometry and experimentally measured parameters, reflecting that nonreciprocity is presented. The theoretical work and fundamental mechanisms that lead to nonreciprocal current are discussed through the lens of symmetry breaking. The impact of the interplay between various system parameters on the efficiency or the SDE is highlighted. Finally, we provide our perspective towards the future directions in this active research field through an analysis of electric field tunability and the intertwining between band topology and superconductivity and how this could be useful to steer the engineering of emergent topological superconducting technologies.

Open Access Status

This publication is not available as open access

Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

Australian Research Council



Link to publisher version (DOI)