The impact of brain tissue oxygenation monitoring on the Glasgow Outcome Scale/Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury: A systematic review
Nursing in Critical Care
Background: Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are one of the leading causes of death or long-term disability around the world. As a result of improvements in supportive care, patients are surviving more severe insults with more pronounced dependency on their families, hospitals, and long-term care facilities. The introduction of brain tissue oxygenation (PbtO2) monitoring aims to recognize episodes of reduced cerebral perfusion with and without associated increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Aim: The aim of this review is to determine the impact of PbtO2 on the Glasgow Outcome Scale/Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS/GOSE) in patients with moderate to severe TBI. Design: Systematic review with narrative and meta-analysis. All original research in which adult patients undergoing PbtO2 were compared with a control group of traditional ICP/cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) monitoring. Both randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included in this review. Methods: Databases were searched in September 2022. The primary outcome of the review was the impact of PbtO2 monitoring on GOS/GOSE, while secondary outcomes were mortality and length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Results: Seven studies with a combined number of 770 patients were included in the review. These patients were adults ≥16 years of age. Only two of the studies included found a statistically significant association between PbtO2 monitoring and improved long-term neurological outcomes in patients with TBI (p =.01, p <.01). A meta-analysis of the secondary outcomes identified an associated reduction of mortality in favour of the group treated with PbtO2 monitoring (p <.0001). Results from studies examining LOS in ICU have demonstrated an associated increase of LOS in ICU in patients treated with PbtO2-guided therapy. Conclusion: From the studies included in this review, only two found a statistically significant association between PbtO2 monitoring and long-term outcomes. It is unclear whether PbtO2 goal-directed therapy has a positive impact on the long-term neurological functions and mortality of patients suffering from TBI. A multicentre randomized controlled trial may provide further evidence, but not necessarily conclusive. Relevance to Clinical Practice: Further research is warranted to determine the efficacy of the introduction of this new monitoring system to guide local policy change.
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