Synchrotron High-Energy X-ray & Neutron Diffraction, and Laser-Scanning Confocal Microscopy: In-Situ Characterization Techniques for Bulk Nanocrystalline Metals

Publication Name

Materials Transactions


This report is aimed at giving an overview of the significance of the novel and innovative microstructural and microscopic characterization techniques for bulk nanostructured metals processed by severe plastic deformation, specifically high-pressure torsion (HPT). In practice, the microstructural relaxation behavior upon heating of nanostructured 316L stainless steel and CoCrFeNi high-entropy alloy was characterized by in-situ heating neutron diffraction measurements; the heterogeneous phase distribution of an HPT-bonded hetero-nanostructured AlMg alloy was examined using synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction; and the microstructural evolution upon heating of a nanostructured CoCrFeNiMn high-entropy alloy was examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. These novel techniques are complementary to each other and any other in- or ex-situ testing methods, especially when nanocrystalline metals are transforming microstructurally and compositionally with temperature and time in a hierarchical manner. The outcomes of the studies emphasize the importance of the methodologies and the development of characterization techniques for further in-depth exploration in the research field of severe plastic deformation.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access





First Page


Last Page


Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Science Foundation



Link to publisher version (DOI)