The design and characterization of a novel dynamic collimator system for synchrotron radiotherapy applications
Background: Novel synchrotron radiotherapy techniques are currently limited to using prefabricated beam-limiting blocks for field definition. For large experiments, a single square tungsten block is often used for every treatment since conformal blocks are both patient and field specific, and require long lead times for fabrication. Future synchrotron radiotherapy treatments would benefit from a dynamic collimator system. Purpose: We developed and tested a novel collimator design for use on the Imaging and Medical Beamline (IMBL) at the ANSTO Australian Synchrotron. Methods: The maximum usable beam size on IMBL is 50-mm wide by 3-mm tall. Given the beam shape, targets must be vertically scanned through the synchrotron beam to cover the target volume. To shape the beam, a novel collimator design was developed, consisting of two semi-circular leaves made from 4-mm thick tungsten sheets, with each leaf capable of both vertical and horizontal movement. A software model was created to optimize motor trajectories and generate deliverable treatment fields. A series of geometric field shapes and clinical target volumes were delivered using the collimator and imaged with a digital imaging detector. Four similarity metrics (volumetric similarity, DICE, and the average and maximum Hausdorff distances) were used to measure differences between the input and planned fields, and the planned and delivered fields. Results: Differences between input and planned fields increased with delivery speed, and were worse for rectangular and square fields compared to circular fields. However, the differences between planned and delivered fields were small, where the maximum average deviation between the fields was 0.25 mm (one pixel). Field repeatability was consistent with no difference (σ = 0 for all metrics) observed in consecutively delivered fields. Conclusions: We have successfully built and demonstrated a novel collimator for synchrotron radiotherapy applications on IMBL. Several design improvements have been highlighted and will be addressed in future revisions the collimator. However, in its current state, the collimator enables dynamically delivered conformal treatment fields to be utilized on IMBL, and is ready to support the forthcoming canine treatments on IMBL.
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