Self-efficacy, resilience and healthy ageing among older people who have an acute hospital admission: A cross-sectional study
Aim: To examine the associations between self-efficacy, resilience and healthy ageing among older people who have an acute hospital admission. Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: Survey and medical record data were collected from older people on discharge from hospital. The survey measured self-efficacy with the 6-item General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE-6), resilience with the Brief Resilience Scale (BRS), and healthy ageing with the Selfie Ageing Index (SAI). Medical record data included potential confounders: co-morbidities, frailty items, previous falls and previous admission in the last 28 days. Multi-linear regression and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used to examine the independent associations between self-efficacy, resilience and healthy ageing. Results: Responses were received from 143 older people (mean age 79). After adjusting for potential confounders, co-morbidities (ß = -0.08, p = 0.001) remained negatively associated with healthy ageing, while self-efficacy (ß = 0.03, p = 0.005) and resilience (ß = 0.05, p < 0.001) remained positively associated with healthy ageing (R2 = 0.243). Positive correlations were found between self-efficacy (ρ = 0.33, p < 0.01), resilience (ρ = 0.38, p < 0.001) and healthy ageing. Positive correlations were also found between self-efficacy and resilience (ρ = 0.38, p < 0.01). Those with lower self-efficacy and resilience were more likely to report reduced activities of daily living, mobility, physical activity and mood. Conclusion: Findings indicate that while the number of co-morbidities have negative consequences for healthy ageing among older people who are hospitalised, the promotion of self-efficacy and resilience can potentially contribute to healthy ageing within the physical and psychological domains. Implications for Patient Care: Nurses can promote self-efficacy, which can potentially increase resilience and help to improve self-management of chronic conditions, functional ability in daily activities, mobility and physical activity and reduce both anxiety and depressive symptoms. Patient Contribution: Participant feedback throughout the data collection process assisted in the evaluation of study methods and data interpretation. This included processes such as assessing selected tools and clarifying the meanings of healthy ageing factors.
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