Achieving All-Plateau and High-Capacity Sodium Insertion in Topological Graphitized Carbon
Hard carbon anodes with all-plateau capacities below 0.1 V are prerequisites to achieve high-energy-density sodium-ion storage, which holds promise for future sustainable energy technologies. However, challenges in removing defects and improving the insertion of sodium ions head off the development of hard carbon to achieve this goal. Herein, a highly cross-linked topological graphitized carbon using biomass corn cobs through a two-step rapid thermal-annealing strategy is reported. The topological graphitized carbon constructed with long-range graphene nanoribbons and cavities/tunnels provides a multidirectional insertion of sodium ions whilst eliminating defects to absorb sodium ions at the high voltage region. Evidence from advanced techniques including in situ XRD, in situ Raman, and in situ/ex situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicates that the sodium ions' insertion and Na cluster formation occurred between curved topological graphite layers and in the topological cavity of adjacent graphite band entanglements. The reported topological insertion mechanism enables outstanding battery performance with a single full low-voltage plateau capacity of 290 mAh g−1, which is almost 97% of the total capacity.
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Natural Science Foundation of Suzhou Municipality