A time-series Wasserstein GAN method for state-of-charge estimation of lithium-ion batteries

Publication Name

Journal of Power Sources


Estimating the state-of-charge (SOC) of lithium-ion batteries is essential for maintaining secure and reliable battery operation while minimizing long-term service and maintenance expenses. In this work, we present a novel Time-Series Wasserstein Generative Adversarial Network (TS-WGAN) approach for SOC estimation of lithium-ion batteries, characterized by a well-designed data preprocessing process and a distinctive WGAN-GP architecture. In the data preprocessing stage, we employ the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) to identify strongly associated features and apply feature scaling techniques for data normalization. Moreover, we leverage polynomial regression to expand the original features and utilize principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the computational load and retain essential information by projecting features into a lower-dimensional subspace. Within the WGAN-GP architecture, we originally devise a Transformer as the generator and a Convolution Neural Network (CNN) as the critic to make the most of local (CNN) and global (Transformer) variables. The overall model is trained with the WGAN, incorporating gradient penalty loss for training purposes. Simulation outcomes using real-road dataset and laboratory dataset reveal that TS-WGAN surpasses all baseline methods with enhanced accuracy, stability, and robustness. The coefficient of determination (R2) for both datasets exceeds 99.50%, demonstrating its potential for practical application.

Open Access Status

This publication may be available as open access



Article Number


Funding Sponsor




Link to publisher version (DOI)