A two-layer optimal configuration approach of energy storage systems for resilience enhancement of active distribution networks

Publication Name

Applied Energy


Introducing energy storage systems (ESSs) into active distribution networks (ADNs) has attracted increasing attention due to the ability to smooth power fluctuations and improve resilience against fault disturbances. This paper proposes a methodology for simultaneously optimizing the configuration of battery ESSs and the operation of ADNs, and the goal is to increase the resilience of the ADNs withstanding multi-faults. Firstly, based on random sampling and K-means clustering, a generation strategy of typical N-1 and N-2 fault scenarios is designed for the ADNs. Then, a two-layer optimization model is established, where the inner model is to optimize the fault recovery performance from the operational perspective, and the outer model is to obtain the optimal site and size of ESSs from the economic perspective. Further, the second-order cone relaxing (SOCR) method and the hybrid gray wolf optimal and particle swarm optimal (GWO-PSO) algorithm are applied to solve the optimization model. Using MATLAB, the modified IEEE 33-node and 118-node systems are built to check the proposed approach's performance. Different periods are considered to show the multi-faults' development, and by introducing a resilience assessment system with node voltage deviation, fault recovery rate, and network loss rate, the resilience of the ADNs is analyzed. From the comparative results, the proposed approach can optimally configure the battery ESSs, and adjust the network structure as well as the distributed generation outputs. Following the ESS configuration cost reduction of 53.19% and 9.8%, the resilience of the ADNs against the multi-faults will increase by 13.36% and 8.25% for the 33-node and 118-node systems.

Open Access Status

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Funding Number


Funding Sponsor

National Natural Science Foundation of China



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