Implementation of Chronic Care Model for Diabetes Self-Management: A Quantitative Analysis

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Objective: The main aim of this study was to implement the Chronic Care Model (CCM) for the self-management of type 2 diabetes in primary health care settings of rural areas of Pakistan and identify its effectiveness and develop strategies for overcoming its challenges. The two core elements of the Chronic Care Model: patient Self-Management Support (SMS) and Delivery System Design (DSD), were implemented to improve the quality of life and risk behaviour of type 2 diabetes patients in the middle-aged population of rural Pakistan. Methods: Thirty patients with type 2 diabetes and 20 healthcare professionals were included in this study consisting of 10 general practitioners and 10 nurses recruited from various clinics (medical centres) of Al-Rehman Hospital in Abbottabad, Pakistan. The quantitative content analysis method was used to identify the frequency of the most recurring statements. A t-test was performed to see the mean difference of HbA1c at baseline after 3-months and 6-months follow-up between male and female patients with diabetes. The hypothesis was tested to identify that diabetes self-management has a gendered dimension in rural areas of Pakistan. Results: The quantitative analysis demonstrated that diabetes self-management has a gendered dimension in the rural areas of Pakistan as the mean difference of HbA1c after a 6-month intervention of the two components of the chronic care model between male and female patients of diabetes was 0.83 (p = 0.039) with 95% CI (−0.05; −1.61). The mean difference in BMI after the intervention of 6 months between males and females was significant (p < 0.05). The mean difference was 4.97 kg/m2, p = 0.040 with 95% CI (−0.24; −9.69). The results have shown that the two components of CCM were effective and improved clinical outcomes for diabetes patients of the rural areas of Pakistan. Conclusions: The application of the two Chronic Care Model’s components provided a viable structure for diabetes self-management education and assistance. As a result, developing systems that incorporate long-term diabetes self-management education has an effect on the health care system’s outcomes.

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