Recent progress and strategic perspectives of inorganic solid electrolytes: fundamentals, modifications, and applications in sodium metal batteries
Chemical Society Reviews
Solid-state electrolytes (SEs) have attracted overwhelming attention as a promising alternative to traditional organic liquid electrolytes (OLEs) for high-energy-density sodium-metal batteries (SMBs), owing to their intrinsic incombustibility, wider electrochemical stability window (ESW), and better thermal stability. Among various kinds of SEs, inorganic solid-state electrolytes (ISEs) stand out because of their high ionic conductivity, excellent oxidative stability, and good mechanical strength, rendering potential utilization in safe and dendrite-free SMBs at room temperature. However, the development of Na-ion ISEs still remains challenging, that a perfect solution has yet to be achieved. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and in-depth inspection of the state-of-the-art ISEs, aiming at revealing the underlying Na+ conduction mechanisms at different length scales, and interpreting their compatibility with the Na metal anode from multiple aspects. A thorough material screening will include nearly all ISEs developed to date, i.e., oxides, chalcogenides, halides, antiperovskites, and borohydrides, followed by an overview of the modification strategies for enhancing their ionic conductivity and interfacial compatibility with Na metal, including synthesis, doping and interfacial engineering. By discussing the remaining challenges in ISE research, we propose rational and strategic perspectives that can serve as guidelines for future development of desirable ISEs and practical implementation of high-performance SMBs.
Open Access Status
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National Natural Science Foundation of China