Dynamic Electrical Circuit Modeling of a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer for Frequency Stability, Resiliency, and Sensitivity Analysis in a Power Grid

Publication Name

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications


Besides producing hydrogen from surplus renewables, electrolyzers can also provide grid ancillary services like enhancing the stability, resilience, and robustness of the power grid. The paper presents a novel electrical circuit model for a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer (PEMEL) that has been validated using experimental data from a 400W electrolyzer. To demonstrate its adaptive capability, the proposed 400W electrical model is scaled up to a 1 MW stack, and this system is validated by comparison to another report of 1 MW stack experimental results. Results show that the developed model reproduces very similar step responses to those reported for the 400W electrolyzer and 1 MW stack. In this paper, the developed model was then used to evaluate the grid frequency response against disturbance, possible resilience advantages from frequency control services, and frequency sensitivity analysis for a modified IEEE-13-bus-distribution-feeder system. These simulations indicate that PEMEL responds to frequency changes faster than traditional synchronous generators, indicating that using the proposed PEMEL stack has a high potential for improving frequency stability, resilience, and robustness.

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